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    Television | Euro Palace Casino Blog

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    Television TV , the electronic delivery of moving images and sound from a source to a receiver. By extending the senses of vision and hearing beyond the limits of physical distance, television has had a considerable influence on society.

    Conceived in the early 20th century as a possible medium for education and interpersonal communication, it became by mid-century a vibrant broadcast medium, using the model of broadcast radio to bring news and entertainment to people all over the world.

    Television is now delivered in a variety of ways: The technical standards for modern television, both monochrome black-and-white and colour, were established in the middle of the 20th century.

    Improvements have been made continuously since that time, and today television technology is in the midst of considerable change.

    Much attention is being focused on increasing the picture resolution high-definition television and on changing the dimensions of the television receiver to show wide-screen pictures.

    In addition, the transmission of digitally encoded television signals is being instituted, with the ultimate goal of providing interactive service and possibly broadcasting multiple programs in the channel space now occupied by one program.

    Despite this continuous technical evolution, modern television is best understood first by learning the history and principles of monochrome television and then by extending that learning to colour.

    The emphasis of this article, therefore, is on first principles and major developments—basic knowledge that is needed to understand and appreciate future technological developments and enhancements.

    The dream of seeing distant places is as old as the human imagination. Priests in ancient Greece studied the entrails of birds, trying to see in them what the birds had seen when they flew over the horizon.

    They believed that their gods, sitting in comfort on Mount Olympus , were gifted with the ability to watch human activity all over the world. For ages it remained a dream, and then television came along, beginning with an accidental discovery.

    In , while investigating materials for use in the transatlantic cable, English telegraph worker Joseph May realized that a selenium wire was varying in its electrical conductivity.

    Further investigation showed that the change occurred when a beam of sunlight fell on the wire, which by chance had been placed on a table near the window.

    Although its importance was not realized at the time, this happenstance provided the basis for changing light into an electric signal.

    He envisaged a photoelectric cell that would look upon only one portion at a time of the picture to be transmitted. Starting at the upper left corner of the picture, the cell would proceed to the right-hand side and then jump back to the left-hand side, only one line lower.

    It would continue in this way, transmitting information on how much light was seen at each portion, until the entire picture was scanned, in a manner similar to the eye reading a page of text.

    A receiver would be synchronized with the transmitter, reconstructing the original image line by line. The concept of scanning, which established the possibility of using only a single wire or channel for transmission of an entire image, became and remains to this day the basis of all television.

    LeBlanc, however, was never able to construct a working machine. Nor was the man who took television to the next stage: Paul Nipkow , a German engineer who invented the scanning disk.

    It would be placed so that it blocked reflected light from the subject. The next hole would do the same thing slightly lower, and so on.

    In Jenkins sent a still picture by radio waves, but the first true television success, the transmission of a live human face, was achieved by Baird in The word television itself had been coined by a Frenchman, Constantin Perskyi, at the Paris Exhibition.

    The efforts of Jenkins and Baird were generally greeted with ridicule or apathy. As far back as an article in the British journal Nature had speculated that television was possible but not worthwhile: A later article in Scientific American thought there might be some uses for television, but entertainment was not one of them.

    Most people thought the concept was lunacy. Nevertheless, the work went on and began to produce results and competitors. GE used a system designed by Ernst F.

    That same year Jenkins began to sell television kits by mail and established his own television station, showing cartoon pantomime programs.

    In Baird convinced the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC to allow him to produce half-hour shows at midnight three times a week.

    Not everyone was entranced. Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian , warned: The word is half Greek and half Latin.

    No good will come of it. The pictures, formed of only 30 lines repeating approximately 12 times per second, flickered badly on dim receiver screens only a few inches high.

    Programs were simple, repetitive, and ultimately boring. Nevertheless, even while the boom collapsed a competing development was taking place in the realm of the electron.

    The final, insurmountable problems with any form of mechanical scanning were the limited number of scans per second, which produced a flickering image, and the relatively large size of each hole in the disk, which resulted in poor resolution.

    In a Scottish electrical engineer, A. Cathode ray s are beams of electron s generated in a vacuum tube. Because the rays move at nearly the speed of light , they would avoid the flicker problem, and their tiny size would allow excellent resolution.

    Swinton never built a set for, as he said, the possible financial reward would not be enough to make it worthwhile , but unknown to him such work had already begun in Russia.

    In Boris Rosing, a lecturer at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, put together equipment consisting of a mechanical scanner and a cathode-ray-tube receiver.

    There is no record of Rosing actually demonstrating a working television, but he had an interested student named Vladimir Kosma Zworykin , who soon emigrated to America.

    In , while working for the Westinghouse Electric Company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Zworykin filed a patent application for an all-electronic television system, although he was as yet unable to build and demonstrate it.

    Meanwhile, the first demonstration of a primitive electronic system had been made in San Francisco in by Philo Taylor Farnsworth , a young man with only a high-school education.

    With his first hundred thousand dollars of RCA research money, Zworykin developed a workable cathode-ray receiver that he called the Kinescope.

    At the same time, Farnsworth was perfecting his Image Dissector camera tube shown in the photograph. At that point a healthy cooperation might have arisen between the two pioneers, but competition, spurred by the vision of corporate profits, kept them apart.

    In England the Gramophone Company, Ltd. Baird never really recovered; he died several years later, nearly forgotten and destitute.

    By the conflict between RCA and Farnsworth had moved to the courts, both sides claiming the invention of electronic television. Years later the suit was finally ruled in favour of Farnsworth, and in RCA signed a patent-licensing agreement with Farnsworth Television and Radio, Inc.

    This was the first time RCA ever agreed to pay royalties to another company. Roosevelt became the first U. Important questions had to be settled regarding basic standards before the introduction of public broadcasting services, and these questions were not everywhere fully resolved until about The United States adopted a picture repetition rate of 30 per second, while in Europe the standard became All the countries of the world came to use one or the other, just as all countries eventually adopted the U.

    By the early s technology had progressed so far, and television had become so widely established, that the time was ripe to tackle in earnest the problem of creating television images in natural colours.

    Colour television was by no means a new idea. In the late 19th century a Russian scientist by the name of A. Polumordvinov devised a system of spinning Nipkow disks and concentric cylinders with slits covered by red, green, and blue filters.

    But he was far ahead of the technology of the day; even the most basic black-and-white television was decades away.

    In , Baird gave demonstrations in London of a colour system using a Nipkow disk with three spirals of 30 apertures, one spiral for each primary colour in sequence.

    The light source at the receiver was composed of two gas-discharge tubes, one of mercury vapour and helium for the green and blue colours and a neon tube for red.

    The quality, however, was quite poor. In the early 20th century, many inventors designed colour systems that looked sound on paper but that required technology of the future.

    They proposed to scan the picture with three successive filters coloured red, blue, and green. Unfortunately, this method required too fast a rate of scanning for the crude television systems of the day.

    Also, existing black-and-white receivers would not be able to reproduce the pictures. In , Harold McCreary designed such a system using cathode-ray tubes.

    He planned to use a separate cathode-ray camera to scan each of the three primary-colour components of a picture.

    He would then transmit the three signals simultaneously and use a separate cathode-ray tube for each colour at the receiving end.

    Both Lloyd and Verlaine pursued solo careers, while Ficca became the drummer for the new wave band The Waitresses.

    Television reformed in , released an eponymous third album and have performed live sporadically thereafter. Jimmy Rip substituted for him that day and was subsequently asked to join the band full-time in Lloyd's place.

    As with many emerging punk bands, the Velvet Underground was a strong influence. Television's ties to punk were underscored by their late '60s garage rock leanings, as the band often covered the Count Five 's " Psychotic Reaction " and the 13th Floor Elevators ' "Fire Engine" in concert.

    Lester Bangs heard in Television's music the influence of Quicksilver Messenger Service , noting a similarity between Verlaine's guitar playing and John Cipollina 's.

    Though Verlaine and Lloyd were nominally " rhythm " and " lead " guitarists, they often rendered such labels obsolete by crafting interlocking parts, where the ostensible rhythm role could be as intriguing as the lead.

    Al Handa writes, "In Television's case, Lloyd was the guitarist who affected the tonality of the music more often than not, and Verlaine and the rhythm section the ones who gave the ear its anchor and familiar musical elements.

    Listen only to Lloyd, and you can hear some truly off the wall ideas being played. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rock art punk [1] post-punk [2] proto-punk [3].

    Television Gigs — Gigography". Retrieved December 25, Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 28 July Archived from the original on April 24, Emerson, Ken June 1, Retrieved April 4, Handa, Al May Hughes, Josiah April 27, Retrieved October 30, Meagher, John May 31, Murray, Noel May 28, Retrieved October 28, Schinder, Scott; Schwartz, Andy Ramone, Marky; Herschlag, Richard My Life as a Ramone.

    Simpson, Dave 17 November Field Notes from the Punk Underground. Wallace, Amy; Manitoba, Dick

    This was the world's first regular "high-definition" television service. California Cable and Telecommunications Association. Fast as a movie camera. Broadcast 100 cats slot, or TV listings in the United Kingdom, is the practice of organizing television programs in a schedule, with broadcast automation used to regularly change the scheduling of TV programs to build an audience for a new show, retain that audience, or compete with other broadcasters' programs. The signals are received via an outdoor parabolic reflector antenna usually referred to as a satellite Beste Spielothek in Dölbau finden and a low-noise block downconverter LNB. Nevertheless, even while the boom collapsed a competing development was taking place in the realm of the electron. This was transmitted by AM radio waves to a receiver unit, where the video signal was applied to a neon light behind a second Nipkow disk rotating synchronized with the first. But soon, as the Book of Stars Casino Slot Online | PLAY NOW of digital-capable TVs dropped, more and more households were converting to digital televisions. The earliest systems employed a spinning disk to create and reproduce images. Retrieved 26 February

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    By 26 January , he demonstrated the transmission of the image of a face in motion by radio. This is widely regarded as the first television demonstration.

    The subject was Baird's business partner Oliver Hutchinson. Baird's system used the Nipkow disk for both scanning the image and displaying it.

    A bright light shining through a spinning Nipkow disk set with lenses projected a bright spot of light which swept across the subject.

    A Selenium photoelectric tube detected the light reflected from the subject and converted it into a proportional electrical signal.

    This was transmitted by AM radio waves to a receiver unit, where the video signal was applied to a neon light behind a second Nipkow disk rotating synchronized with the first.

    The brightness of the neon lamp was varied in proportion to the brightness of each spot on the image. As each hole in the disk passed by, one scan line of the image was reproduced.

    Baird's disk had 30 holes, producing an image with only 30 scan lines, just enough to recognize a human face. In , he became involved in the first experimental mechanical television service in Germany.

    In , he made the first outdoor remote broadcast, of The Derby. Baird's mechanical system reached a peak of lines of resolution on BBC television broadcasts in , though the mechanical system did not scan the televised scene directly.

    An American inventor, Charles Francis Jenkins , also pioneered the television. He published an article on "Motion Pictures by Wireless" in , but it was not until December that he transmitted moving silhouette images for witnesses; and it was on 13 June , that he publicly demonstrated synchronized transmission of silhouette pictures.

    In Jenkins used the Nipkow disk and transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion, over a distance of five miles, from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington, D.

    Ives and Frank Gray of Bell Telephone Laboratories gave a dramatic demonstration of mechanical television on 7 April Their reflected-light television system included both small and large viewing screens.

    The small receiver had a 2-inch-wide by 2. Both sets were capable of reproducing reasonably accurate, monochromatic, moving images. Along with the pictures, the sets received synchronized sound.

    The system transmitted images over two paths: Comparing the two transmission methods, viewers noted no difference in quality. Subjects of the telecast included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.

    A flying-spot scanner beam illuminated these subjects. The scanner that produced the beam had a aperture disk.

    The disc revolved at a rate of 18 frames per second, capturing one frame about every 56 milliseconds. Today's systems typically transmit 30 or 60 frames per second, or one frame every Television historian Albert Abramson underscored the significance of the Bell Labs demonstration: It would be several years before any other system could even begin to compare with it in picture quality.

    It was popularly known as " WGY Television". As part of his thesis, on 7 May , he electrically transmitted, and then projected, near-simultaneous moving images on a five-foot square screen.

    Because only a limited number of holes could be made in the disks, and disks beyond a certain diameter became impractical, image resolution on mechanical television broadcasts was relatively low, ranging from about 30 lines up to or so.

    Nevertheless, the image quality of line transmissions steadily improved with technical advances, and by the UK broadcasts using the Baird system were remarkably clear.

    Mechanical television, despite its inferior image quality and generally smaller picture, would remain the primary television technology until the s.

    The last mechanical television broadcasts ended in at stations run by a handful of public universities in the United States.

    In , English physicist J. Thomson was able, in his three famous experiments, to deflect cathode rays, a fundamental function of the modern cathode ray tube CRT.

    He managed to display simple geometric shapes onto the screen. In Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton , fellow of the Royal Society UK , published a letter in the scientific journal Nature in which he described how "distant electric vision" could be achieved by using a cathode ray tube, or Braun tube, as both a transmitting and receiving device, [32] [33] He expanded on his vision in a speech given in London in and reported in The Times [34] and the Journal of the Röntgen Society.

    They had attempted to generate an electrical signal by projecting an image onto a selenium-coated metal plate that was simultaneously scanned by a cathode ray beam.

    Strange from EMI , [40] and by H. Although others had experimented with using a cathode ray tube as a receiver, the concept of using one as a transmitter was novel.

    Johnson who gave his name to the term Johnson noise and Harry Weiner Weinhart of Western Electric , and became a commercial product in The device was first described in a patent application he filed in Hungary in March for a television system he dubbed "Radioskop".

    Although his breakthrough would be incorporated into the design of RCA 's " iconoscope " in , the U. The patent for his receiving tube had been granted the previous October.

    Both patents had been purchased by RCA prior to their approval. Takayanagi did not apply for a patent. On 7 September , American inventor Philo Farnsworth 's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image, a simple straight line, at his laboratory at Green Street in San Francisco.

    This is widely regarded as the first electronic television demonstration. Meanwhile, Vladimir Zworykin was also experimenting with the cathode ray tube to create and show images.

    While working for Westinghouse Electric in , he began to develop an electronic camera tube. But in a demonstration, the image was dim, had low contrast, and poor definition, and was stationary.

    But RCA, which acquired the Westinghouse patent, asserted that the patent for Farnsworth's image dissector was written so broadly that it would exclude any other electronic imaging device.

    Thus RCA, on the basis of Zworykin's patent application, filed a patent interference suit against Farnsworth. Patent Office examiner disagreed in a decision, finding priority of invention for Farnsworth against Zworykin.

    Farnsworth claimed that Zworykin's system would be unable to produce an electrical image of the type to challenge his patent. Zworykin received a patent in for a color transmission version of his patent application; [58] he also divided his original application in In , RCA introduced an improved camera tube that relied on Tihanyi's charge storage principle.

    Unfortunately, a problem with the multipactor was that it wore out at an unsatisfactory rate. However, Ardenne had not developed a camera tube, using the CRT instead as a flying-spot scanner to scan slides and film.

    On 2 November , a line broadcasting service employing the Emitron began at studios in Alexandra Palace , and transmitted from a specially built mast atop one of the Victorian building's towers.

    It alternated for a short time with Baird's mechanical system in adjoining studios, but was more reliable and visibly superior.

    This was the world's first regular "high-definition" television service. The original American iconoscope was noisy, had a high ratio of interference to signal, and ultimately gave disappointing results, especially when compared to the high definition mechanical scanning systems then becoming available.

    On the other hand, in , Zworykin shared some patent rights with the German licensee company Telefunken.

    This tube is essentially identical to the super-Emitron. Indeed, it was the representative of the European tradition in electronic tubes competing against the American tradition represented by the image orthicon.

    American television broadcasting, at the time, consisted of a variety of markets in a wide range of sizes, each competing for programming and dominance with separate technology, until deals were made and standards agreed upon in The world's first line television standard was designed in the Soviet Union in and became a national standard in The basic idea of using three monochrome images to produce a color image had been experimented with almost as soon as black-and-white televisions had first been built.

    Although he gave no practical details, among the earliest published proposals for television was one by Maurice Le Blanc, in , for a color system, including the first mentions in television literature of line and frame scanning.

    But his system contained no means of analyzing the spectrum of colors at the transmitting end, and could not have worked as he described it.

    Scottish inventor John Logie Baird demonstrated the world's first color transmission on 3 July , using scanning discs at the transmitting and receiving ends with three spirals of apertures, each spiral with filters of a different primary color; and three light sources at the receiving end, with a commutator to alternate their illumination.

    The first practical hybrid system was again pioneered by John Logie Baird. In he publicly demonstrated a color television combining a traditional black-and-white display with a rotating colored disk.

    This device was very "deep", but was later improved with a mirror folding the light path into an entirely practical device resembling a large conventional console.

    The CBS field-sequential color system was partly mechanical, with a disc made of red, blue, and green filters spinning inside the television camera at 1, rpm, and a similar disc spinning in synchronization in front of the cathode ray tube inside the receiver set.

    CBS began experimental color field tests using film as early as 28 August , and live cameras by 12 November. CBS began daily color field tests on 1 June The War Production Board halted the manufacture of television and radio equipment for civilian use from 22 April to 20 August , limiting any opportunity to introduce color television to the general public.

    As early as , Baird had started work on a fully electronic system he called Telechrome. Early Telechrome devices used two electron guns aimed at either side of a phosphor plate.

    The phosphor was patterned so the electrons from the guns only fell on one side of the patterning or the other. Using cyan and magenta phosphors, a reasonable limited-color image could be obtained.

    He also demonstrated the same system using monochrome signals to produce a 3D image called " stereoscopic " at the time. A demonstration on 16 August was the first example of a practical color television system.

    Work on the Telechrome continued and plans were made to introduce a three-gun version for full color.

    However, Baird's untimely death in ended development of the Telechrome system. The Geer tube was similar to Baird's concept, but used small pyramids with the phosphors deposited on their outside faces, instead of Baird's 3D patterning on a flat surface.

    The Penetron used three layers of phosphor on top of each other and increased the power of the beam to reach the upper layers when drawing those colors.

    The Chromatron used a set of focusing wires to select the colored phosphors arranged in vertical stripes on the tube.

    One of the great technical challenges of introducing color broadcast television was the desire to conserve bandwidth , potentially three times that of the existing black-and-white standards, and not use an excessive amount of radio spectrum.

    In the United States, after considerable research, the National Television Systems Committee [] approved an all-electronic system developed by RCA , which encoded the color information separately from the brightness information and greatly reduced the resolution of the color information in order to conserve bandwidth.

    As black-and-white TVs could receive the same transmission and display it in black-and-white, the color system adopted is [backwards] "compatible".

    The brightness image remained compatible with existing black-and-white television sets at slightly reduced resolution, while color televisions could decode the extra information in the signal and produce a limited-resolution color display.

    The higher resolution black-and-white and lower resolution color images combine in the brain to produce a seemingly high-resolution color image.

    The NTSC standard represented a major technical achievement. Although all-electronic color was introduced in the U. The first national color broadcast the Tournament of Roses Parade occurred on 1 January , but during the following ten years most network broadcasts, and nearly all local programming, continued to be in black-and-white.

    It was not until the mids that color sets started selling in large numbers, due in part to the color transition of in which it was announced that over half of all network prime-time programming would be broadcast in color that fall.

    The first all-color prime-time season came just one year later. In , the last holdout among daytime network programs converted to color, resulting in the first completely all-color network season.

    Early color sets were either floor-standing console models or tabletop versions nearly as bulky and heavy; so in practice they remained firmly anchored in one place.

    The introduction of GE 's relatively compact and lightweight Porta-Color set in the spring of made watching color television a more flexible and convenient proposition.

    In , sales of color sets finally surpassed sales of black-and-white sets. Color broadcasting in Europe was not standardized on the PAL format until the s, and broadcasts did not start until By this point many of the technical problems in the early sets had been worked out, and the spread of color sets in Europe was fairly rapid.

    By the mids, the only stations broadcasting in black-and-white were a few high-numbered UHF stations in small markets, and a handful of low-power repeater stations in even smaller markets such as vacation spots.

    By the late s even these areas switched to color sets. Digital television DTV is the transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signals, in contrast to the totally analog and channel separated signals used by analog television.

    Due to data compression digital TV can support more than one program in the same channel bandwidth. It was not until the s that digital TV became feasible.

    Until June , the Japanese MUSE standard, based on an analog system, was the front-runner among the more than 23 different technical concepts under consideration.

    Then, an American company, General Instrument, demonstrated the feasibility of a digital television signal. This breakthrough was of such significance that the FCC was persuaded to delay its decision on an ATV standard until a digitally based standard could be developed.

    In March , when it became clear that a digital standard was feasible, the FCC made a number of critical decisions. First, the Commission declared that the new ATV standard must be more than an enhanced analog signal, but be able to provide a genuine HDTV signal with at least twice the resolution of existing television images.

    The final standards adopted by the FCC did not require a single standard for scanning formats, aspect ratios , or lines of resolution. This compromise resulted from a dispute between the consumer electronics industry joined by some broadcasters and the computer industry joined by the film industry and some public interest groups over which of the two scanning processes—interlaced or progressive—would be best suited for the newer digital HDTV compatible display devices.

    In fact, interlaced scanning can be looked at as the first video compression model as it was partly designed in the s to double the image resolution to exceed the limitations of the television broadcast bandwidth.

    Another reason for its adoption was to limit the flickering on early CRT screens whose phosphor coated screens could only retain the image from the electron scanning gun for a relatively short duration.

    Progressive scanning , the format that the computer industry had long adopted for computer display monitors, scans every line in sequence, from top to bottom.

    The computer industry argued that progressive scanning is superior because it does not "flicker" on the new standard of display devices in the manner of interlaced scanning.

    It also argued that progressive scanning enables easier connections with the Internet, and is more cheaply converted to interlaced formats than vice versa.

    The film industry also supported progressive scanning because it offered a more efficient means of converting filmed programming into digital formats.

    For their part, the consumer electronics industry and broadcasters argued that interlaced scanning was the only technology that could transmit the highest quality pictures then and currently feasible, i.

    Broadcasters also favored interlaced scanning because their vast archive of interlaced programming is not readily compatible with a progressive format.

    Schreiber , who was director of the Advanced Television Research Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology from until his retirement in , thought that the continued advocacy of interlaced equipment originated from consumer electronics companies that were trying to get back the substantial investments they made in the interlaced technology.

    Digital television transition started in late s. All governments across the world set the deadline for analog shutdown by s.

    Initially the adoption rate was low, as the first digital tuner-equipped TVs were costly. But soon, as the price of digital-capable TVs dropped, more and more households were converting to digital televisions.

    The transition is expected to be completed worldwide by mid to late s. The advent of digital television allowed innovations like smart TVs.

    A smart television, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV , is a television set or set-top box with integrated Internet and Web 2.

    Besides the traditional functions of television sets and set-top boxes provided through traditional broadcasting media , these devices can also provide Internet TV, online interactive media , over-the-top content , as well as on-demand streaming media , and home networking access.

    These TVs come pre-loaded with an operating system. Internet television refers to the receiving of television content over the Internet instead of by traditional systems — terrestrial, cable and satellite although internet itself is received by these methods.

    IPTV is one of the emerging Internet television technology standards for use by television broadcasters. Web television WebTV is a term used for programs created by a wide variety of companies and individuals for broadcast on Internet TV.

    A first patent was filed in [] and extended the following year [] for an "intelligent" television system, linked with data processing systems, by means of a digital or analog network.

    Apart from being linked to data networks, one key point is its ability to automatically download necessary software routines, according to a user's demand, and process their needs.

    Most modern 3D television sets use an active shutter 3D system or a polarized 3D system , and some are autostereoscopic without the need of glasses.

    Stereoscopic 3D television was demonstrated for the first time on 10 August , by John Logie Baird in his company's premises at Long Acre, London.

    The first 3D TV was produced in The advent of digital television in the s greatly improved 3D TVs. Although 3D TV sets are quite popular for watching 3D home media such as on Blu-ray discs, 3D programming has largely failed to make inroads with the public.

    Many 3D television channels which started in the early s were shut down by the mids. According to DisplaySearch 3D televisions shipments totaled Programming is broadcast by television stations, sometimes called "channels", as stations are licensed by their governments to broadcast only over assigned channels in the television band.

    At first, terrestrial broadcasting was the only way television could be widely distributed, and because bandwidth was limited, i.

    By contrast, the United Kingdom chose a different route, imposing a television license fee on owners of television reception equipment to fund the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC , which had public service as part of its Royal Charter.

    WRGB claims to be the world's oldest television station, tracing its roots to an experimental station founded on 13 January , broadcasting from the General Electric factory in Schenectady, NY , under the call letters W2XB.

    The two stations were experimental in nature and had no regular programming, as receivers were operated by engineers within the company.

    The image of a Felix the Cat doll rotating on a turntable was broadcast for 2 hours every day for several years as new technology was being tested by the engineers.

    On 2 November , the BBC began transmitting the world's first public regular high-definition service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London.

    All other countries around the world are also in the process of either shutting down analog terrestrial television or switching over to digital terrestrial television.

    Cable television is a system of broadcasting television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency RF signals transmitted through coaxial cables or light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

    This contrasts with traditional terrestrial television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television.

    In the s, FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone service, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables.

    The abbreviation CATV is often used for cable television. By extending the senses of vision and hearing beyond the limits of physical distance, television has had a considerable influence on society.

    Conceived in the early 20th century as a possible medium for education and interpersonal communication, it became by mid-century a vibrant broadcast medium, using the model of broadcast radio to bring news and entertainment to people all over the world.

    Television is now delivered in a variety of ways: The technical standards for modern television, both monochrome black-and-white and colour, were established in the middle of the 20th century.

    Improvements have been made continuously since that time, and today television technology is in the midst of considerable change. Much attention is being focused on increasing the picture resolution high-definition television and on changing the dimensions of the television receiver to show wide-screen pictures.

    In addition, the transmission of digitally encoded television signals is being instituted, with the ultimate goal of providing interactive service and possibly broadcasting multiple programs in the channel space now occupied by one program.

    Despite this continuous technical evolution, modern television is best understood first by learning the history and principles of monochrome television and then by extending that learning to colour.

    The emphasis of this article, therefore, is on first principles and major developments—basic knowledge that is needed to understand and appreciate future technological developments and enhancements.

    The dream of seeing distant places is as old as the human imagination. Priests in ancient Greece studied the entrails of birds, trying to see in them what the birds had seen when they flew over the horizon.

    They believed that their gods, sitting in comfort on Mount Olympus , were gifted with the ability to watch human activity all over the world.

    For ages it remained a dream, and then television came along, beginning with an accidental discovery. In , while investigating materials for use in the transatlantic cable, English telegraph worker Joseph May realized that a selenium wire was varying in its electrical conductivity.

    Further investigation showed that the change occurred when a beam of sunlight fell on the wire, which by chance had been placed on a table near the window.

    Although its importance was not realized at the time, this happenstance provided the basis for changing light into an electric signal.

    He envisaged a photoelectric cell that would look upon only one portion at a time of the picture to be transmitted. Starting at the upper left corner of the picture, the cell would proceed to the right-hand side and then jump back to the left-hand side, only one line lower.

    It would continue in this way, transmitting information on how much light was seen at each portion, until the entire picture was scanned, in a manner similar to the eye reading a page of text.

    A receiver would be synchronized with the transmitter, reconstructing the original image line by line. The concept of scanning, which established the possibility of using only a single wire or channel for transmission of an entire image, became and remains to this day the basis of all television.

    LeBlanc, however, was never able to construct a working machine. Nor was the man who took television to the next stage: Paul Nipkow , a German engineer who invented the scanning disk.

    It would be placed so that it blocked reflected light from the subject. The next hole would do the same thing slightly lower, and so on. In Jenkins sent a still picture by radio waves, but the first true television success, the transmission of a live human face, was achieved by Baird in The word television itself had been coined by a Frenchman, Constantin Perskyi, at the Paris Exhibition.

    The efforts of Jenkins and Baird were generally greeted with ridicule or apathy. As far back as an article in the British journal Nature had speculated that television was possible but not worthwhile: A later article in Scientific American thought there might be some uses for television, but entertainment was not one of them.

    Most people thought the concept was lunacy. Nevertheless, the work went on and began to produce results and competitors. GE used a system designed by Ernst F.

    That same year Jenkins began to sell television kits by mail and established his own television station, showing cartoon pantomime programs.

    In Baird convinced the British Broadcasting Corporation BBC to allow him to produce half-hour shows at midnight three times a week.

    Not everyone was entranced. Scott, editor of the Manchester Guardian , warned: The word is half Greek and half Latin. No good will come of it. The pictures, formed of only 30 lines repeating approximately 12 times per second, flickered badly on dim receiver screens only a few inches high.

    Programs were simple, repetitive, and ultimately boring. Nevertheless, even while the boom collapsed a competing development was taking place in the realm of the electron.

    The final, insurmountable problems with any form of mechanical scanning were the limited number of scans per second, which produced a flickering image, and the relatively large size of each hole in the disk, which resulted in poor resolution.

    In a Scottish electrical engineer, A. Cathode ray s are beams of electron s generated in a vacuum tube. Because the rays move at nearly the speed of light , they would avoid the flicker problem, and their tiny size would allow excellent resolution.

    Swinton never built a set for, as he said, the possible financial reward would not be enough to make it worthwhile , but unknown to him such work had already begun in Russia.

    In Boris Rosing, a lecturer at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, put together equipment consisting of a mechanical scanner and a cathode-ray-tube receiver.

    There is no record of Rosing actually demonstrating a working television, but he had an interested student named Vladimir Kosma Zworykin , who soon emigrated to America.

    In , while working for the Westinghouse Electric Company in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Zworykin filed a patent application for an all-electronic television system, although he was as yet unable to build and demonstrate it.

    Meanwhile, the first demonstration of a primitive electronic system had been made in San Francisco in by Philo Taylor Farnsworth , a young man with only a high-school education.

    With his first hundred thousand dollars of RCA research money, Zworykin developed a workable cathode-ray receiver that he called the Kinescope.

    Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic writes that the album was "revolutionary" and composed "entirely of tense garage rockers that spiral into heady intellectual territory, which is achieved through the group's long, interweaving instrumental sections.

    Television's second album, Adventure , was recorded and released in The members' independent and strongly held artistic visions, along with Richard Lloyd's drug abuse, led to the band's break-up in July Both Lloyd and Verlaine pursued solo careers, while Ficca became the drummer for the new wave band The Waitresses.

    Television reformed in , released an eponymous third album and have performed live sporadically thereafter.

    Jimmy Rip substituted for him that day and was subsequently asked to join the band full-time in Lloyd's place. As with many emerging punk bands, the Velvet Underground was a strong influence.

    Television's ties to punk were underscored by their late '60s garage rock leanings, as the band often covered the Count Five 's " Psychotic Reaction " and the 13th Floor Elevators ' "Fire Engine" in concert.

    Lester Bangs heard in Television's music the influence of Quicksilver Messenger Service , noting a similarity between Verlaine's guitar playing and John Cipollina 's.

    Though Verlaine and Lloyd were nominally " rhythm " and " lead " guitarists, they often rendered such labels obsolete by crafting interlocking parts, where the ostensible rhythm role could be as intriguing as the lead.

    Al Handa writes, "In Television's case, Lloyd was the guitarist who affected the tonality of the music more often than not, and Verlaine and the rhythm section the ones who gave the ear its anchor and familiar musical elements.

    Listen only to Lloyd, and you can hear some truly off the wall ideas being played. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Rock art punk [1] post-punk [2] proto-punk [3]. Television Gigs — Gigography". Retrieved December 25, Retrieved 30 June Retrieved 28 July Archived from the original on April 24, Emerson, Ken June 1,

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